Agriculture is a significant source of income in every country. Although not every country is characterized as an agricultural country, productivity is important in any small or large-scale agricultural activity. While natural and quality products are important for consumers, efficient and high-quality production is also important for farmers.
Agricultural productivity can be noted if a farmer receives more products than the previous year. But if the farmer expends more time and energy than usual, this efficiency cannot be claimed to be fully fulfilled. There are numerous inputs and outputs in agricultural production. It takes on many forms depending on various circumstances.
Factors affecting agricultural productivity can be examined under three headings. Because although efficiency may seem like a simple thing, natural, social, and economic details are important in efficiency.
What are Natural Factors?
Natural factors, as the name suggests, are factors that originate from nature itself. So, is it feasible to capitalize on natural factors? Undoubtedly, it is feasible. Natural elements can be assessed based on the farmer’s expertise. General factors such as weather conditions, soil fertility where the land is located, and soil structure can be examined in this group.
It can be said that climate is an indicator that determines the fate of every product. While some plants are more productive in the heat, some crops like cold and humid air. When the farmer’s production knowledge about the product is combined with this factor, efficient agriculture becomes possible.
Temperature, or climate, is one of the natural forces where there is the least chance of human involvement. Yes, there are specific circumstances, like greenhouses, but in terms of efficiency, greenhouses might not offer a significant return. Furthermore, although using natural means is less expensive, a greenhouse requires specialized equipment. Additionally, the vegetative phase, which is the stage of plant reproduction, is influenced by temperature. The products get more developed the more heat they receive throughout the vegetative phase.
Apart from temperature, precipitation is also one of the factors of the climate. For example, to grow rice, you must farm in a more rainy region. If the precipitation is not as much as expected, the product will be inefficient or of poor quality.
Factors such as the humidity requirement of the plant and the temperature required by the product are the factors that determine productivity in agriculture. What is meant by farmer experience is that the product that can be grown according to the climate or latitude should be selected. It is not impossible to grow the product suitable for tropical climates in the Black Sea climate. However, the productivity will not be the same.
One of the key elements influencing product quality and production is the soil. Loose soils are not preferable when it comes to productivity because they are difficult to take root in or absorb water. Even when there is little to no rainfall, soils with deep roots are nevertheless able to keep trees and plants in place.
The presence of beneficial elements for plants in the soil, such as Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Mo, significantly affects productivity. The materials in the soil affect the development of plants and are also important in their quality. These elements affect the product more efficiently when rain or irrigation water goes deeper. For this reason, Chernozem soils or Black Earth, which are the most fertile, are important. But the natural soil type of each region is different. For this reason, as in the climate factor, acting according to nature and planting the appropriate product should be what the farmer should do.
What are Social Factors?
Social factors are things related to the farmer’s knowledge or ownership of soil fertility. The conventional cultivation methods in society may prevent seeing the innovations that will provide advantages in agriculture. In addition, the joint ownership of the land to be planted may affect the planting rate as well as reduce the quality of the product.
Land ownership can be a productivity issue for farmers. For example, on communal lands, crop yields may decrease when territorial integrity is divided. Or the fact that the elements such as irrigation systems and fertilization arising from land ownership cannot be fully established systematically are among the social factors.
The traditional method, which is also referred to as extensive agriculture, can lead to negativities in agriculture. Extensive agriculture should not be thought of as completely negative. A farmer who supports agriculture with only precipitation may not be able to meet the water needs of the product depending on natural factors. Socially, only traditional agriculture is used in the environment, and not using technology irrigation methods as a method causes the crops to be exposed to drought. In cases such as spraying and fertilizing the products, ignoring modern agriculture completely can cause a waste of energy and time.
What are the Economic Factors?
Farmers who can meet the economic conditions are more advantageous in production. Adequate equipment and a sufficient workforce will increase production as well as improve diversity.
The effectiveness of the equipment used for the land is another factor affecting agriculture. Being able to procure products with advanced technology that enables more efficient production and harvesting ensures that it is among the economic factors. The productivity of agriculture is also affected when the farmer has access to products in an economic context.
Agricultural productivity will rise if the farmer is in good financial standing since he can more easily obtain the machinery required for various goods. While using animals to plow was more popular in the past, using tractors today offers greater efficiency. Because taking a greater interest in the land has the benefit of saving time. The growth stages of the items on land are also close together since the soil is plowed by vehicles in a shorter amount of time.
Sufficient labor in field planting or crop harvesting ensures both growth and harvesting of the product in a quality manner. The fast collection of products like fruits and vegetables that mature in a short period of time affects the quality of the product. At the same time, the productivity of the soil will increase as the product is collected in a high-quality manner.
From an economic point of view, less demand balance also affects productivity. Although the two seem to be very far from each other, if the person who does not have any problems in terms of transportation can provide their products in line with demand, comprehensive and more efficient products are preferred. However, if planting is considered on land that can be easily accessed, the priority of the farmer will be rapid growth instead of production efficiency.
All these factors lead to results that increase or decrease productivity. However, whatever the factor in productivity, the most important element is that the farmers know both their soil and their product well.