According to 2019 data, the global agriculture sector accounts for 3.5 trillion dollars in the global economy. The world agricultural economy, dominated by countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, the USA, and Japan, is a market where different countries are strong in terms of production. The fact that the top exporting countries in agriculture are the USA, Netherlands, Germany, France, and Brazil points to the importance of development and technology use in the agricultural economy.
Agriculture in Turkey
Agriculture is one of the indispensable sectors in Turkey. With its contribution to employment, exports, and national income, this sector will continue to remain a developing sector in Turkey that will always be open to development. Turkey is a prominent country in the world market, with an output level of $10,000 per person employed in agriculture.
Terrain and Climatic Conditions of Turkey
More than 1000 meters of elevation cover 55.9% of Turkey’s total area. 62.5% of the country’s land is covered by areas having a slope of more than 15%. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class quality soils account for 24.5% of all lands, with agricultural lands accounting for 90% of all lands. Agriculture occupies 26.3 million hectares of Turkey’s total land area of 77.9 million hectares.
In Turkey, there are three distinct climate types; continental climate, black sea climate, and Mediterranean climate. These climates also have subcategories and the continental climates present in Central Anatolia and the southeast exhibit fluctuation. This diversity is very beneficial for Turkey. As a result of these conditions, Turkey is a country that can grow a variety of fruits. This contributes to the development of Turkey in exports.
The Exports of Turkey is on the Rise
According to the data of TIM, Turkey’s exports increased by 21.4% in January-February 2022 compared to the same period of the previous year and reached $37,5B. The agricultural sector, which finished 2021 with record exports, is continuing apace this year. While Turkey’s exports continue to accelerate as a result of bilateral agreements with some countries and an increase in the number of companies in the export family, the agriculture sector continues to contribute significantly to Turkey’s exports.
The agricultural sector’s exports grew by 27.8% in the first two months of this year compared to the same time in 2021 and had the greatest January-February export in the Republic’s history, totaling $5,3B
Agriculture’s Total Share of Turkey’s Exports is 15,5%
Cereals, pulses, oilseeds and goods, fruit and vegetables, dried fruit and products, aquatic products and animal products, furniture, paper, and forest products all reached a record in January-February exports.
Cereals, pulses, oilseeds and products $1,8B, fresh fruit and vegetables $540,6M, fruit and vegetable products 376 million 442 thousand dollars, dried fruits and products $247,5M, aquaculture and animal products 617 million 263 thousand dollars, furniture, paper, and forest products with $1,1B in this period achieved a record export.
Cereals, pulses, oilseeds, and products increased by 47%, fresh fruit and, vegetable sector by 2.5%, fruit and vegetable products by 36.8%, dried fruits and products by 12.4%, fishery products, and animal products by 45%, and furniture, paper, and forestry products by 26.7% during the same period.
The Highest Demand for Agricultural Exports from Iraq
Iraq had the largest demand for agricultural exports with record-breaking sectors. Cereals, pulses, oilseeds and products, aquaculture and animal products, furniture, paper, and forest products primarily to Iraq, fresh fruit and vegetable products primarily to Russia, fruit and vegetable products primarily to the United States, and dried fruits and products primarily to Germany.
Cereals, pulses, oilseeds, and products worth $360M were sent to Iraq, as were aquaculture and animal products worth $104M, and furniture, paper, and forest products worth $140M. Fresh fruit and vegetable products were exported for $123M to Russia, $61M to the United States, and $34M to Germany.
Istanbul is the Leader in Exports
Companies based in Istanbul earned the greatest foreign sales in industries that set new records for exports. Companies from Istanbul dominated the cereals, pulses, oilseeds and their products, aquaculture, and animal products, furniture, paper, and forest products, fruit and vegetable products, companies from Mersin dominated the fresh fruit and vegetable products sector, and companies from Izmir dominated the dried fruits and products sector.
Istanbul exported cereals, pulses, oilseeds, and their products worth $510M, aquaculture and animal products worth $105M, furniture, paper, and forest products worth $495M, and fruit and vegetable products worth $98M.
Cereal Exports Increased by 52.7% Compared to February 2021
Despite global negatives such as the pandemic, we can observe that grain exports are continually increasing in Turkey.
Noting that IHBIR reached an export of $255M in February, a 26% rise over the same month the previous year, “Our sector exports of grains, pulses, oilseeds, and products climbed by 52.7% compared to the same month last year,” Okutur said. “Our sector’s exports were $969M in February,” he continued.